Writing Format

Spelling rules

British spellings are always used. Check the spellings of words and phrases from the Oxford Dictionary only.

Numbering and symbols

Numbering from 0-9 will be written in words and, from 10-onwards will be written in digits.

Sign of percentage is not to be used and percent should be written as ‘per cent’ (notice the space).


Currency signs are not to be used in any case. Use complete names of all currencies.

Dating format

The dating format is ‘29 March 2009’ and specific eras should be written as the 1950s, 1960s or 1980s.


Only single quotation marks are used. However, quotes within quotations should be in double quotations.

The author said, ‘Philosopher Gottfried Leibniz said that love is “to be delighted by the happiness of another.”’

Indent quotes should not have quotation marks. See bellow

Famous lines from a novel named A Tale of Two Cities by Charles Dickens are as follows:

It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness, it was the epoch of belief, it was the epoch of incredulity, it was the season of Light, it was the season of Darkness, it was the spring of hope, it was the winter of despair, we had everything before us, we had nothing before us, we were all going direct to Heaven, we were all going direct the other way. . . .

From its opening statement, A Tale of Two Cities moves us through a world of paradox and contradiction. The thematic statement of the opening paragraph is supported in the rest of the book by a number of images and metaphors. . .

(Please note that we do not change anything in the quotations)


Main headings should be in bold (upper-lower case) while subheadings should always be in Italics (upper-lower case). See below


It is the art and practice of conducting negotiations between representatives of states. It usually refers to international diplomacy, the conduct of international relations through the intercession of professional diplomats.

Types of diplomacy

There are a variety of diplomatic categories and diplomatic strategies employed by organizations and governments to achieve their aims, each with its own advantages and disadvantages.

Note: Do not use colons in headings.

Names and designations

Names of personnel and their designations to be checked from the official government sites.

Designations of former dignitaries to be written in lowercase.

E.g. president Asif Ali Zardari, president George W. Bush, prime minister Yousuf Raza Gillani.

Designations of serving dignitaries to be written in uppercase.

E.g. Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif, President Barack Obama, Prime Minister David Cameron.

Names of official treaties, conventions, organizations and policies will always be in uppercase. However, always check the official naming format.

E.g. Indus Waters Treaty, Vienna Convention, Camp David Accords, United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP).

Uniformity in names should be maintained throughout the article. The same is the case with abbreviations and full-forms (if using either of the two).


Do not include dots in any abbreviation.

E.g. US or UN, not U.S or U.N.

Foreign language words

Foreign language words that are not commonly used to be written in italics.

E.g. lebensraum