Footnote Style


Single Author

Sajjad Hyder, Foreign Policy of Pakistan (Lahore: Progressive Publishers, 1987), p.12. Arif Hasan, Participatory Development (Karachi: Oxford University Press, 2010), p. 30. Co-Author

Mushahid Hussain and Akmal Hussain, Pakistan: Problems of Governance (Lahore: Vanguard, 1993), p.4.

More than Three Authors

Milton Osborne, Beverly Male, Jesicca Rao et al., Refugees: Four Political Case Studies

(Canberra: Australian National University, 1981), p.38.

Editors as Authors

Changqing Cao and James D. Seymour (eds.), Through Dissident Chinese Eyes: Essays on Self-Determination (New York: M.E Sharpe Inc, 1998), pp.59-67.

Chapters in a Book

Ahmed Rashid, ‘The Afghan Conundrum’, in Maleeha Lodhi (ed.), Pakistan: Beyond the Crisis State (Karachi: Oxford University Press, 2011), pp. 305-318.


Farzana Shakoor, ‘The Kargil Crisis: An Analysis’, Pakistan Horizon, Vol. 52, No. 3, July 1999, p.50.

Ashton B. Carter, ‘America’s New Strategic Partner?’, Foreign Affairs, July/August 2006, p. 33.


‘Endgame in Tripoli’, The Economist (London), Vol. 398, No. 8722, 26 February-4 March 2011, p. 21.


News Items

Just mention Newspaper, place and date. Dawn (Karachi), 20 February 2011.

Newspaper Articles

Zubeida Mustafa, ‘Will they return home?’, Dawn, 25 May 2005.


‘An unintelligent stance’ (editorial), Dawn, 24 January 2006.


Yashwant Sinha’s interview with Hindustan Times (New Delhi) as reported by Dawn (Karachi), 7 April 2003.


Statement by President George Walker Bush on the economic situation in the US, as reported by The New York Times (New York), 18 September 2008.

Conference Papers

Brig (Retd) Agha Ahmad Gul, ‘Iran’s Pursuit of Peaceful Nuclear Technology: An

Evaluation, paper presented at a conference held at The Pakistan Institute of International Affairs, Karachi, 22 November 2011.

Halil Ibrahim Yenigun, ‘Unveiled Muslim identity in the West: A Muslim Perspective’, paper presented at AMSS Annual Conference, Virginia, 24-26 September 2004, p.2.

Published Reports: include writer’s name, chapter’s title of the main report like of FIIA or IAEA: if available put it, otherwise give as the author has given.

Timo Behr and Mike Aaltola, ‘The Arab Uprising Causes, Prospects and Implications’, FIIA briefing paper 76, March 2011.

UNHCR, ‘The State of the World’s Refugees 2000: Fifty Years of Humanitarian Action’ (Oxford: OUP, 2000), p.279.

The 9/11 Commission Report (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2004), p.367.

Tunis Infortunisie, ‘Ben Ali Expresses ‘Deep Regret’ at the Start of War Against Iraq’, CRS Report for Congress, 20 March 2003.

Daniel Novotný, Abdessemad Belhaj, Marek Čejka, Alice Savovová and Jan Kuźvart, ‘The Changing Security Situation In the Maghreb’, Research Paper 3/2011, April 2011,, accessed 26 March 2011.

News Agency

David Alexander, ‘US-Afghan withdrawal will be gradual: Gates’, Reuters, 5 June 2011,, accessed 19 August 2011.


Chris McGreal and Jack Shenker, ‘Hosni Mubarak resigns – and Egypt celebrates a new dawn’, 11 February 2011,

Dale Gavlak, ‘Arab education falling behind’, 5 February 2008,, accessed 25

March 2011.

For International Newspapers, News Agencies, Reports, Documents: UN resolutions, IAEA, CRS we can include the website addresses if available, otherwise give as it is:

UNSC, ‘United Nations Security Council Resolution 1696 S/RES/1696(2006)’ 31 July 2006, (UN Resolution).

‘UN nuclear watchdog chief expresses concern about anti-Iran rhetoric from US’,

International Herald Tribune, 28 October 2007,, accessed 29

October 2007. (Newspaper).

Sam Roe, ‘An Atomic threat made in America’, Chicago Tribune, 28 January 2007, story,0,2034260.html (Newspaper).

Report by the Director-General IAEA, ‘Implementation of the NPT Safeguards Agreement in the Islamic Republic of Iran’, 27 February 2006,

‘News Center: In Focus: IAEA and Iran’ 2008. (It was incomplete and with wrong date, while in the paper, the information contained the date 2003), so the given below source was accessed.

News Centre: In Focus: IAEA and Iran, ‘Statement by the Iranian Government and Visiting EU Foreign Ministers’ 21 October 2003,

Fredrik Dahl, ‘UN inspectors revisit Iran's Arak heavy-water site’, Reuters, 30 July 2007, idUSDAH02145320070730, accessed 31 July 2007. (‘accessed 31 July 2007’ is the date mentioned by the author not by Research Department and if there is no date mentioned by the author then we don’t need to find). (News agency).


Arif Hasan, op.cit., p.50.

Ramaswamay R. Iyer, ‘Arbitration & Kishanganga project’., op.cit.

Arif Hasan, Participatory Development, op.cit., p. 30.

Ibid., p.12.

Footnote number is placed after the Quotation mark. He stated that ‘our military culture must reward new thinking innovation, experimentation.’ 2

He stated that ‘our military culture must reward new thinking innovation,

experimentation? 5



Within the system. As you already know that there are several points of Islamic individuals’ opinions, leaders and parties that they rejected to take part in party elections, saying that elections are divisive, anti-Islamic and are not in tune with Islamic understanding, so Turkish experience is also important in this sense.1

To understand, why the Turkish political Islamists have had this operational point, as Serif Mardin points out and have been succeeded in Turkish exceptionalism. We need to look at the Ottoman experience and analyze it from the perspective of secularism, pluralism, if not democracy and from the perspective of Islam-state law relations. Why do we look at the Ottoman experience? We see that not only the 19th-century development so westernization and secularization, but also even from the beginning of the Ottoman, to a certain extent, had a kind of secular political and legal system2 and this might surprise some people who would think that the Ottoman state was a Sharia state, but actually, even those rulers were practising Muslims even those rulers tried to base their arguments and their legal reasoning and their decisions on Sharia. But when we especially focus on and look at the actual content of their reasoning and political decisions and political structures we would see that the empire was not much different from any other empire either in the East or in the West.4 For instance, if you think about succession in the Ottoman empire, the succession of the monarchy you would see that in a very secular fashion a son would inherit his father’s throne. This is purely a secular human affair. So, Islam does not tell people, according to religion, Qura’an and Sunna that your son should be the next king.5 this is purely secular on the bases that his father was the king and he owned all this empire and he was the ruler, but with the secular reasoning, his son becomes the next king. This is not different from the British experience.6

  1. Arif Hasan, Participatory Development (Karachi: Oxford University Press, 2010), p. 30.
  2. Farzana Shakoor, ‘The Kargil Crisis: An Analysis’, Pakistan Horizon, Vol. 52, No. 3, July 1999, 50.
  3. Arif Hasan, op.cit., 50.
  4. ‘Endgame in Tripoli’, The Economist (London), Vol. 398, No. 8722, 26 February-4 March 2011, p.
  5. Dawn (Karachi), 20 February 6. Ibid., p.12.


The reference of unpublished thesis can be given.