Cyber Warfare: Emerging Non-Traditional Threat to Pakistan’s Security


  • Sara Ahmad Lecturer at the Department of Politics and International Relations, Lahore Leads University, Lahore.
  • Dr Javeria Jahangir Assistant Professor, Department of Political Science and International Relations, University of Management and Technology, Lahore.


Cyber warfare, cyber security, information technology, preparedness, threat..


In the 21st century, with the revolution in information and communication technology, cyber warfare is a growing threat to Pakistan’s sovereignty and national security. National databases all over the world heavily rely on computer systems, and this is a serious challenge to the security of any country. Offensive and defensive acts against opponent states take place through computer systems in the cyber arena. Cyber war has no geographical boundaries and it is beyond traditional norms. Traditional means of war have shifted to non-traditional warfare, and cyber space has become the new battlefield. Most countries are engaged in cyber warfare in order to damage or access confidential military information of rival states. Cyber warfare can be considered a game changer or paradigm shift in the field of defence; it has also become a challenge for traditional defence policies. It is a new arena of war where strategies are unclear and difficult to understand because of their highly technical and sensitive nature. Developed countries are giving much attention to protecting the cyber domain, and Pakistan is not exceptional in this regard. Pakistan has passed various legislations for cyber security, but these are not effective for cyber warfare. Pakistan has realized this new threat and has adopted a comprehensive plan in the form of the National Cyber Security Policy 2021, but for a better output, needs to properly implement it. This qualitative study highlights cyber warfare as a new domain of war, and addresses the challenges of cyber warfare faced by Pakistan.